Stat 411/511 THE RANDOMIZATION TEST. Charlotte Wickham. stat511.cwick.co.nz. Oct


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1 Stat 411/511 THE RANDOMIZATION TEST Oct Charlotte Wickham stat511.cwick.co.nz
2 Today Review randomization model Conduct randomization test What about CIs? Using a tdistribution as an approximation to the randomization distribution.
3 Read: in Sleuth Display 1.1 p. 2 Creativity scores in two motivation groups, and their summary statistics Motivation Group Assigned randomly by researcher Intrinsic Extrinsic score 4.1 points 19.3 higher 24.3than the 16.8 extrinsic Does intrinsic motivation improve creativity? The intrinsic group has an average creativity Sample Size: Average: Sample Standard Deviation: group = 4.1
4 Display 1.2 p. 3 Questionnaires given creative writers, to rank intrinsic and extrinsic reasons for writing INSTRUCTIONS: Please rank the following list of reasons for writing, in order of personal importance to you (1 = highest, 7 = lowest). You get a lot of pleasure out of reading something good that you have written. You enjoy the opportunity for selfexpression. You achieve new insights through your writing. You derive satisfaction from expressing yourself clearly and eloquently. You feel relaxed when writing. You like to play with words. You enjoy becoming involved with ideas, characters, events, and images in your writing. List of extrinsic reasons for writing List of intrinsic reasons for writing INSTRUCTIONS: Please rank the following list of reasons for writing, in order of personal importance to you (1 = highest, 7 = lowest). You realize that, with the introduction of dozens of magazines every year, the market for freelance writing is constantly expanding. You want your writing teachers to be favorably impressed with your writing talent. You have heard of cases where one bestselling novel or collection of poems has made the author financially secure. You enjoy public recognition of your work. You know that many of the best jobs available require good writing skills. You know that writing ability is one of the major criteria for acceptance into graduate school. Your teachers and parents have encouraged you to go into writing.
5 The randomized experiment model Key idea: there is no population, and no sampling! get treatment 1 Some experimental units assigned at random observed responses for units assigned to treatment 1 Doesn t matter where they came from. get treatment 2 observed responses for units assigned to treatment 2 Chance only enters through the random assignment of units to treatments
6 Remember: Statistical testing 1. Set up the null hypothesis (and alternative hypothesis) 2. Calculate the test statistic 3 Evaluate the evidence against the null hypothesis by comparing the test statistic to test statistics expected under the null hypothesis, the null distribution. To do a test all we really need to know is the null distribution. I.e. the randomization distribution if the null was true. The evidence is summarized by a pvalue, the probability we would see such an extreme teststatistic if the null hypothesis is true. 4. If the p is low, the null must go! Reject or fail to reject the null hypothesis
7 Randomization Distribution The randomization distribution is the histogram of all values for the statistic from all possible ways the experimental units could have been randomly assigned to groups. In the sampling model, the reason there is variability in a sample statistic is because we induced variability by taking a random sample. We describe the variability using the sampling distribution of the statistic. In the randomized experiment model, the only reason we see variability in group statistics is because we induced variability by randomly assigning people to groups. We describe the variability using the randomization distribution of the statistic. In randomized experiments it s the relationship between the randomization distribution and the effect of the treatment that allow us to make inferences.
8 subject 1 subject 2...
9 500,000 teststatistics, from 500,000 random regroupings An approximation to the distribution we would expect from chance alone null distribution 1302/ are as small or smaller than / are as large or larger than 4.14 The value from the data twosided pvalue = ( )/ =
10 A statistical summary There is strong evidence that the effect of the intrinsic questionnaire is not the same as the extrinsic questionnaire in this set of subjects (randomization test, pvalue = 0.005). no population inference
11 Randomization test Procedure We pick a teststatistic and calculate the observed value. To get a pvalue we compare our observed teststatistic to the randomization distribution of teststatistics obtained by assuming the null is true. The pvalue will be the proportion of teststatistics in the randomization distribution that are as or more extreme than the observed teststatistic. Explain the steps in a randomization test for testing for a treatment effect in a controlled experiment.
12 The Randomization test No sampling from a population, so no assumptions on a population. Assumed random allocations to groups. We used the difference in sample averages as our test statistic, but we could have used something else. Null hypothesis: there is no difference between treatments (for any subject) What s the alternative?
13 Alternative hypothesis: there is some difference between treatments for at least one subject. Some ways the alternative could be true: one treatment induces a fixed additive change in response, δ, for all subjects (a.k.a the additive treatment model) one treatment induces a larger mean response across subjects one treatment induces a larger variance in response across subjects one treatment induces more skewness in response across subjects We might tailor our test statistic to the type of deviation from the null we expect to see, but different test statistics don t change the alternative hypothesis
14 Confidence Intervals There are no parameters of interest so, there are no confidence intervals of interest. We could assume a particular type of alternative that is parameterized. Then we could make confidence intervals on that parameter. (e.g. additive treatment model). this is what the Sleuth does Section 2.4.1
15 The additive treatment model The additive treatment model, says: A subject s response on treatment 2 is their response on treatment 1 plus some fixed number, δ, that is the same for everyone. In math, consider subject i Y i1 = Observed value of subject i under treatment 1 Y i2 = Observed value of subject i under treatment 2 Y i2 = Y i1 + δ for all i unknown parameter If we have random allocation to groups and we are willing to assume the additive treatment model, then our hypotheses in the randomization test become: Null hypothesis: the treatment effect is zero, δ = 0 Alternative hypothesis: the treatment effect is not zero, δ 0
16 Creativity case study Let s assume the additive treatment model. Creativity score given Intrinsic Questionnaire = Creativity score given Extrinsic Questionnaire + δ Let s also use the tstatistic, instead of the difference in sample averages, as our test statistic. Y 1 Y 2 SE Y 1 Y 2
17 subject 1 subject 2... Actual grouping Extrinsic Intrinsic sample avg sample sd sample n two sample tstat = 2.92 Another grouping 1 2 sample avg sample sd sample n two sample tstat = 1.37
18 A histogram of 500,000 tstatistics, from random regroupings of the creativity study. a tdistribution curve with d.f. 45 value of the tstatistic The tdistribution is a very good approximation to the randomization distribution of the tstatistic
19 In a randomized experiment, The result from a two sample ttest is approximately the same as a randomization test, when: you assume the additive treatment model the observed responses aren t too nonnormal This is pretty amazing! The two sample ttest arose from a completely different model, random sampling from populations.
20 This means we have increased the number of situations we can do a ttest. We can do a two sample ttest when we have samples from Normal populations, and when we have a randomized experiment of two treatments, with data that isn t too nonnormal. more on too nonnormal later... The scope of inference (population or causal) is still completely restricted by the study design.
21 > t.test(score ~ Treatment, data = case0101, var.equal = TRUE) Two Sample ttest data: Score by Treatment t = , df = 45, pvalue = alternative hypothesis: true difference in means is not equal to 0 95 percent confidence interval: sample estimates: mean in group Extrinsic mean in group Intrinsic
22 Creativity case study A statistical summary based on the ttest There is strong evidence that the effect of the intrinsic questionnaire is not the same as the extrinsic questionnaire in this set of subjects (two sample ttest, pvalue = 0.005). We estimate the effect of the intrinsic questionnaire is to add 4.14 points to the creativity score compared to the extrinsic questionnaire. With 95% confidence, the effect of the intrinsic questionnaire is to add between 1.29 and 7.00 points to the creativity score compared to the extrinsic questionnaire. note the language of an additive treatment model the effect is to add
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