Recommendation 1486 2000 of the parliamentary assembly of the council of europe on maritime and fluvial cultural heritage 270 16. International protection of underwater cultural heritage. Underwater cultural heritage international law oxford. Activities directed at underwater cultural heritage must use nondestructive techniques and survey methods in preference to recovery of objects. Another factor for genderrelated changes concerns effective participation in the negotiation process and the issue of who has influence.
The convention on the protection of the underwater cultural heritage is a treaty that was adopted on 2 november 2001 by the general conference of the united nations educational, scientific and cultural organization unesco. Underwater cultural heritage 1996 ratified by the 11th icomos general assembly in sofia, bulgaria, october 1996. Chinas ratification will ensure the international protection of underwater cultural heritage on the maritime silk road. Cultural heritage includes both physical objects and intangible knowledge and traditions that we inherit from past generations, safeguard in the present, and bestow for the benefit of future generations. Defining underwater cultural heritage sciencedirect. The current situation of maritime cultural property under the interna tional law of the sea 1. Maarleveld and others published underwater cultural heritage and international efforts to protect it,notably through unesco. Pdf underwater cultural heritage survey in lagos bay.
Underwater cultural heritage encompasses all traces of human existence that lie or have lain underwater and have a cultural or historical character. The unesco conventionon underwater cultural heritage and the. If playback doesnt begin shortly, try restarting your device. The number of wrecks of 289 threats to underwater cultural heritage. The 2001 unesco convention on the protection of the. Initially referring exclusively to the monumental remains of cultures, the concept of heritage has gradually been. Protection of underwater cultural heritage in international waters adjacent to the uk a jnapc perspective 21 years on robert yorke following a fractious and very public exchange of letters in 1988 in the columns of the times. Underwater cultural heritage sustainable development. The unesco convention on the protection of the underwater cultural heritage, adopted in 2001, is intended to enable states to better protect their submerged cultural heritage. The 2001 unesco convention on the protection of the underwater cultural heritage has been elaborated and adopted by the member states of unesco.
The unesco conventionon underwater cultural heritage and the international law of the sea markus rau i. This includes three million shipwrecks such as titanic, belitung and the 4,000 shipwrecks of the sunken fleet of kublai khan. Introduction this charter is intended to encourage the protection and management of underwater cultural heritage in inland and inshore waters, in. Pdf the unesco 2001 convention on the protection of the. The underwater cultural heritage uch includes all the material evidence of human activities carried on in the marine environment, particularly as evidenced on the sea floor. The protection of underwater cultural heritage through in situ preservation shall be considered as the first option. Perhaps most importantly, ratification sends a clear signal to other nations that the united states respects their cultural heritage and will facilitate u. The protection of the underwater cultural heritage. There are about 8,000 historic shipwrecks, sunken aircraft and other underwater cultural heritage sites in australian waters, representing some of the unique and irreplaceable physical evidence of our past. Underwater cultural heritage encompasses a vast legacy of millions of ancient shipwrecks, sunken cities, prehistoric sites and submerged landscapes. The oceans are the past and the future of human life. Along with their underwater environment, they form an underwater cultural landscape.
In contrast to the limited publication policy when the full text of an agreement may not be reproduced in the unts in its entirety, the objective of applying the partial publication method to a particular situation is to speed up the publishing effort by e. Waters and the 2001 unesco convention chapter pdf available january 2014 with 351 reads how we measure reads. On top of that, ther e is the search for documented wrecks and document ed episodes in national history. Study on protection of underwater cultural heritage in u. Euunesco information meeting on underwater cultural heritage. International committee on the underwater cultural heritage. Jul 16, 2017 philipsburg, sint maarten the minister of education, culture, youth and sport ecys would hereby like to inform the general public of the following. Archaeological excavations inside callao cave in penablanca, cagayan valley, northern luzon unearthed the earliest human evidence dated to 67,000 years ago mijares et al. Heritage officer maritime and underwater cultural heritage. Since the 1960s, unesco has been actively cooperating with governments, national authorities, ngos, scientists and police forces to improve the protection of the underwater cuand is a central ltural heritage player in this discipline. Southeast asia ministries of culture met to discuss the safeguarding and reviving the shared maritime and underwater cultural heritage of southeast asia. It holds not only information about the history of humankind and the social importance of the oceans but also about the history of climate change and its impact on humanity. Underwater cultural archaeological heritage is considered to be all traces of human existence having a cultural, historical or archaeological character which have been partially or totally under water, periodically or.
Pdf underwater cultural heritage law study ole varmer. Heritage, encompasses tangible and intangible, natural and cultural, movable and immovable and documentary assets inherited from the past and transmitted to future generations by virtue of their irreplaceable value. Legal protection of the underwater cultural heritage. Underwater cultural heritage at risk old shipwrecks and new dredging 37 prepared. Underwater cultural heritage united nations educational. Pdf study on protection of underwater cultural heritage in. Introduction this charter is intended to encourage the protection and management of underwater cultural heritage in inland and inshore waters, in shallow seas and in the deep oceans. B1 abstract tanzania has a long and unique maritime history. The unesco convention on the protection of the underwater cultural heritage is the international communitys response to the destruction of submerged archaeological sites by treasurehunters and industrial activities. United nations educational, scientific and cultural organization.
The overall approach combined outline recording of structural remains on the seabed with detailed digital recording of recovered structure once onshore, all within the context of an explicit research strategy. Clyde presented a case study on the management proposal for the world war ii wrecks at subic bay, philippines giving me another reason to return to that part of the world as soon. Underwater cultural heritage rules means the rules made under section 61. Convention on the protection of the underwater cultural heritage. This shared history left various signatures which are needed by present and future generations for their cultural, scientific and. Statistics of the english and dutch east india companies from the seventeenth century on are relevant. Policy for the protection of sunken warships 19 january 2001 273 17. While the term cultural heritage is generally used in europe, in the usa the term cultural resources is in more. At underwater cultural heritage accepted for implementation in indian waters by the standing committee of the central advisory board on archaeology, in its meeting held on 14th 15th october 2004 i. Administration of cultural heritage3 sach is the leader of uch conservation team, while the national center of underwater cultural heritage fig.
Pdf underwater cultural heritage and international. Underwater cultural heritage act 2018 department of. It represents an invaluable source of information on ancient civilizations and offers an opportunity to further develop diving activities, museums and tourism. The main purpose of jch is to publish original papers which comprise previously unpublished data and present innovative methods concerning all. Underwater cultural heritage nautical archaeological society nas the nautical archaeology society nas wants to allow everyone to benefit from the unique and fascinating resource that is the worlds maritime heritage. Australian underwater cultural heritage intergovernmental. Definition of cultural heritage cif icomos home page. Often, the protection of cultural heritage and underwater nature go hand in hand, with each promoting the other. Blumberg, attorneyadvisor, office of oceans affairs university of virginia center for oceans law and policys annual conference on law of the sea issues in the east and south china seas xiamen, china march 12, 2005. Statement by the president of the united states on u. Managing threats to underwater cultural heritage sites.
Information brochure on the 2001 convention pdf frequently asked questions pdf learn about the convention. Ethics, underwater cultural heritage, and international law. Underwater cultural heritage conservation and the convention. The newly adopted united nations education, scientific and cultural organizations convention on the protection of the underwater cultural heritage provides the first universal protection regime for this value archaeological resource. The term heritage has evolved considerably over time.
The 1954 hague convention and its two 1954 and 1999 protocols duration. An introduction presented by sarah watkinskenney wednesday, august 16, 2017, at 11. The depth of water to the sea floor is approximately 2730m, with the upper sections of the wreck approximately 16 meters below the surface. A trained lawyer, she is the author of several publications on intellectual property law and cultural heritage protection, in particular the unesco 2001 convention, as well as a book on the legal protection of industrial design. Chinas maritime silk road initiative and the protection. The management of the underwater cultural heritage. The underwater cultural heritage is a field in which there has been growing international interest. Activities directed at underwater cultural heritage shall not adversely affect the underwater cultural heritage more than is necessary for the objectives of the project. Pdf climate change and underwater cultural heritage. Feb 15, 2010 sets out basic principles for the protection of underwater cultural heritage. Jul 01, 2015 to round off the week, sunday was spent in lectures on some of the theory behind underwater cultural heritage management and museology, presented by mark and sally.
There are also sunken ruins and cities, like the remains of the pharos. Underwater cultural heritage in finland museovirasto. Underwater cultural heritage is enormously rich and has immense potential. The most notable feature in religious ritual is the division between purity and pollution. Underwater remains of human activity are called underwater cultural heritage. Ulrike koschtial is an assistant programme specialist in the museum and cultural objects section of unesco, in charge of the 2001 convention. Links international committee on the underwater cultural. Among the meritorious efforts to mitigate this situation, in mozambique and worldwide, the 2001 unesco convention for the protection of the underwater cultural heritage is an outstanding initiative and needs to be rati. The international committee on the underwater cultural heritage icuch was founded in 1991 by icomos australia to promote international cooperation in the protection and management of underwater cultural heritage and to advise the international council on monuments and sites icomos on issues related to underwater cultural heritage around the world.
The convention provides a standard for managing activities directed at underwater cultural heritage wherever it is located. The journal of cultural heritage jch is a multidisciplinary journal of science and technology for studying problems concerning conservation and awareness of cultural heritage in a wide framework. Shipwrecks and other underwater cultural remains are facing the increasing risk of serious damage or destruction through the. Natural hazards a threat for immovable cultural heritage. In recent years, it has attracted increasing attention from the scientific community and the general public. The unesco conventionon underwater cultural heritage and. Underwater cultural archaeological heritage is considered to be all traces of human existence having a cultural, historical or archaeological character which have been partially or totally under water, periodically or continuously, for at least 50 years such as. It discusses looting and illicit trafficking that threatens all heritage is, and the special threats to underwater cultural heritage from application of the law of finds and salvage. To manage the heritage resources in relation to maritime and underwater cultural heritage much, to provide assistance to the unit manager, as well as to provide administrative and technical suppo. It is an international treaty, which represents the response of the international community to the increasing looting and destruction of underwater cultural heritage.
Strategies towards sustainable conservation and management ichumbaki, e. It is a branch of cultural resources management crm, although it also draws on the practices of cultural conservation, restoration, museology, archaeology, history and architecture. It can be an archaeological site, a monument, an artwork, an underwater shipwreck, or a cultural tradition or ritual. Unesco convention on the protection of the underwater heritage. Unesco convention on the protection of the underwater. The us had one of the largest delegations and perhaps the most controversial, as in. Secretariat of the of the unesco convention on the. G hutchinson particular interest to treasure salvors, those which sank carrying high value cargoes from the caribbean to spain or from the orient to europe, are quite small. The australian government is committed to protecting australias underwater cultural heritage. The protection and management of underwater cultural heritage uch is a challenging topic, as it involves the interplay of united states u. Cultural heritage management chm is the vocation and practice of managing cultural heritage.
Council of europe on the underwater cultural heritage 267 15. Protection of the underwater cultural heritage yorke, robert joint nautical archaeology policy committee, united kingdom 12. International protection of underwater cultural heritage robert c. Pdf ethics, underwater cultural heritage, and international law. A central difficulty in concluding this convention was defining underwater cultural heritage.272 585 1489 1136 216 581 847 1503 1545 1454 803 1459 192 18 1324 628 715 896 449 580 720 462 935 1183 1066 1397 1566 581 354 945 890 687 971 1018 17